Periodontics - Gum Care

Periodontics is the branch of dentistry dealing with health & disease of tissues investing and supporting the teeth. Four basic tissues compose the complete periodontium

  1. Gingiva (The Gums).
  2. Cementum (The layer covering the root of the tooth).
  3. Periodontal ligament (soft tissue cushion between the tooth root and bone holding the tooth).
  4. Alveolac bone (part of jaw bone which is housing the tooth root).

In health, these periodontal tissues make the attachment apparition of teeth, keep it firmly in its place and help in bearing the forces of chewing, biting, swallow and speeds. But when they are progressively destroyed by the presence of peenodontal disease, their oceans weakening of this attachment, making the teeth loose and unable to bear the loads of various activities and ultimately both falls out in course of time.

Diseases which attack these supporting structures are of two main types:

  1. Those which attack the gingiva(Gums) ? Gingivitis.
  2. Those which involve chronic and progressive destructions of periodontal ligament, cementum and alveolac bone.

Periodontal diseases are infectious diseases caused by bacteria, present in mouth. The most important causative factor is Dental Plaque, which is soft deposit present on teeth, due to lack of proper cleaning of teeth. Many other factors contribute such as food lodgment, improper brushing habits, improper shape and size of teeth, faulty dental restorations and treatment procedures.Abnormal habits such as thumb sucking, lounge thrusting and mouth breathing, faulty nutrition and food habits and few debilitating diseases e.g. diabetics, hypertension, mental retardation, blood disorders, conditions such as pregnancy, menopause, puberty etc.

Periodontal disease can affect any individual of any age, sex, race and community at any time in life, but these are some risk factors or behaviors, which increase the susuplibility of an individual to get this disease and can modify the winze of disease to a more aggressive and rapidly deteriovaling form. These are smoking, diabetes, old age, pregnancy, family history of similar problem, hypertension.The worst fact about the periodontal disease is that the disease are very slow in onset, progression and hardly cause any symptoms or problems in the initial stages.

Cosmetic gum procedures like crown lengthening, depigmentation of gums,etc r also covered here

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